Dec 10, 1815. Born London, England, the only legitimate child of Romantic poet Lord Byron, Lovelace was an applied mathematician and author of the worlds first detailed description of a computer in her work Notes, which appended an article about friend/ mentor Charles Babbages Analytical Engine. She is hailed as the worlds first computer programmer for her work describing how to derive Bernoulli numbers on Babbages machine.Despite her significant contributions, she only signed her work with her initials so as not to upset societal norms. The contemporary Ada computer language is named for her. Lovelace died Nov 27, 1852, at Marylebone, England.
Human Rights Day is on 10 December each year, marking the adoption of the Universal Declaration of Human Rights in 1948.
Dec 10, 1898. Following the conclusion of the Spanish-AmericanWar in 1898, American and Spanish ambassadors met at Paris, France, to negotiate a treaty. Under the terms of this treaty, Spain granted the US the Philippine Islands and the islands of Guam and Puerto Rico and agreed towithdraw from Cuba. Senatorial debate over the treaty centered on the USsmove toward imperialism by acquiring the Philippines. A vote was taken Feb6, 1899, and the treaty passed by a one-vote margin. President William McKinley signed the treaty Feb 10, 1899.
Dec 11, 1936. Christened Edward Albert Christian George AndrewPatrick David, King Edward VIII was born at Richmond Park, England, on June 12, 1894, and became Prince of Wales in July 1911. He ascended to the English throne upon the death of his father, George V, on Jan 20, 1936, but coronation never took place. He abdicated on Dec 11, 1936, in order to marry the woman I love, twice-divorced American Wallis Warfield Simpson. They were married in France, June 3, 1937. Edward was named Duke ofWindsor by his brother-successor, George VI. The duke died at Paris, May28, 1972, but was buried in England, near Windsor Castle.
Dec 12, 1863. Born at Lten, Norway, Munch was a painter andprintmaker whose work influenced the development of German Expressionism. Munchs use of bold lines, violent imagery and blunt sexuality shocked conventional society, but he called it soul painting. His most famous work, The Scream (1893), has become an icon of the anxiety inherent in modern consciousness. In 2012, at $ 120 million, it became the most expensive work of art ever sold at auction. Munch died at Ekely, Norway, on Jan 23, 1944.
Dec 13. Gingerbread decorating is a classic holiday tradition for all ages: few things can serve as a more festive centerpiece than a gingerbread house. Decorating gingerbread houses is easy and brings the whole family together. Adults and kids can have a ball decorating with their favorite candies to create roof tiles, holly wreaths and playfully patterned window designs. The results and memories will be special. Ideas, instruction, recipes, trouble-shooting and more at the Wilton website. Annually, the second Saturday in December.
Dec 13. The horse is a living link to the heritage and history of our nation and represents a common bond among all peoples who led the way in building our country. Today, the horse industry contributes more than$ 112 billion annually to the American economy. Therefore, the CaliforniaState Legislature (as well as the US Senate) has declared the second Saturday of December to be the Day of the Horse in honor of these magnificent creatures.
Dec 12. The legend of Guadalupe tells how in December 1531, anIndian, Juan Diego, saw the Virgin Mother on a hill near Mexico City. She instructed him to go to the bishop and have him build a shrine to her on the site of the vision. After his request was initially rebuffed, the Virgin Mother appeared to Juan Diego three days later. She instructed him to pick roses growing on a stony and barren hillside nearby and take them to thebishop as proof. Although flowers do not normally bloom in December, JuanDiego found the roses and took them to the bishop. As he opened his mantleto drop the roses on the floor, an image of the Virgin Mary appeared among them. The bishop built the sanctuary as instructed. Our Lady of Guadalupebecame the patroness of Mexico City and by 1746 was the patron saint of all New Spain and by 1910 of all Latin America.
Dec 12. A day to enjoy poinsettias and to honor Dr. Joel Roberts Poinsett, the American diplomat who introduced into the US the Central American plant that is named for him. Poinsett was born at Charleston, SC,Mar 2, 1799. He also served as a member of Congress and as secretary of war. He died near Statesburg, SC, Dec 12, 1851. The poinsettia has becomea favorite Christmas season plant.
In Sweden, Saint Lucia day is a national holiday – a celebration of the festival of light. Young girls dress as Saint Lucia, with a headdress of candles serving guests coffee and lussekatter (saffron buns).
Dec 13, 1991. North and South Korea signed a treaty of reconciliation and nonaggression, formally ending the Korean War 38 years after fighting ceased in 1953. This agreement was not hailed as a peace treaty, and the armistice that was signed July 27, 1953, between the UN and NorthKorea, was to remain in effect until it could be transformed into a formal peace.
Dec 13 January 1938. The Rape of Nanking began after the Japanese took Nanking during the Sino-Japanese War. Hundreds of thousands of Chinese soldiers, civilians and women were murdered or raped.Editors ofChase’s Calendar of Events (2013-10-02). Chase’s Calendar of Events 2016 with CD-ROM (p. 611). McGraw-Hill. Kindle Edition.
Dec 14, 1799. The first president of the US died at his home at Mount Vernon, VA, shortly before midnight. He had battled a sudden acute respiratory infection and been bled four times. I die hard, but I am not afraid to go were his famous near-dying words. After he confirmed his own burial plans, Washingtons actual last words were, Tis well. He wasmourned throughout the US and in Europe.
The Halcyon Days are traditionally the seven days before and the seven days after the Winter Solstice – a time of calm and tranquility.
Dec 14, 1911. The elusive object of many expeditions dating from the 17th century, the South Pole was located and visited by Roald Amundsen with four companions and 52 sled dogs. All five men and 12 of the dogs returned to base camp safely. Next to visit the South Pole, Jan 17, 1912, was a party of five led by Captain Robert F. Scott, all of whom perishedduring the return trip. A search party found their frozen bodies 11 monthslater.
Dec 15, 1791. The first 10 amendments to the US Constitution,known as the Bill of Rights, became effective following ratification by Virginia. The anniversary of ratification and of effect is observed as Bill of Rights Day.
If you can say that your job or even your life is like tryingto herd cats, then this day is for you with our sympathy.
Dec 15, 1939. One of the 20th centurys biggest film blockbusters premiered on this date in Atlanta, GA. Based on Margaret Mitchells bestselling and Pulitzer Prize winning novel of Civil War passions, the film starred Vivian Leigh and Clark Gable and was produced by the dynamic David O. Selznick. It won an unprecedented eight Academy Awards, including best picture. Hattie McDaniel won a best supporting actress Oscar the first time an African-American actor had won or been nominated. No film would touch its Oscar achievement or monetary grosses for decades. At the chilly Atlanta premiere, more than 300,000 people lined the streets to catch sight of the films stars arriving at the Loews Grand Theater.
Dec 16, 1864. On the second day of battle at Nashville, Uniontroops defeated Confederate forces under General John B. Hood, essentially knocking the Confederate Army of Tennessee out of the war.
Dec 16, 1944. A German offensive was launched in the Belgian Ardennes Forest, where Hitler had managed to concentrate 250,000 men. The Nazi commanders, hoping to minimize any aerial counterattack by the Allies, chose a time when foggy, rainy weather prevailed and the initial attackby eight armored divisions along a 75-mile front took the Allies by surprise, the Fifth Panzer Army penetrating to within 20 miles of crossings on the Meuse River. US troops were able to hold fast at bottlenecks in the Ardennes, but by the end of December the German push had penetrated 65 miles into the Allied lines (though their line had narrowed from the initial 75 miles to 20 miles). By that time the Allies began to respond, and the Germans were stopped by Montgomery on the Meuse and by Patton at Bastogne. The weather then cleared and Allied aircraft began to bomb the German forces and supply lines by Dec 26. The Allies reestablished their original line by Jan21, 1945.
Dec 16, 1770. Regarded by many as the greatest orchestral composer of all time, Ludwig van Beethoven was born at Bonn, Germany. Impairment of his hearing began before he was 30, but even total deafness did nothalt his composing and conducting. His last appearance on the concert stage was to conduct the premiere of his Ninth Symphony, at Vienna, May 7, 1824. He was unable to hear either the orchestra or the applause. Often in love, he never married. Of a stormy temperament, he is said to have died during a violent thunderstorm Mar 26, 1827, at Vienna.
Dec 16, 1773. Anniversary of Boston patriots boarding of British vessel at anchor at Boston Harbor. Contents of nearly 350 chests of teawere dumped into the harbor.
Dec 17, 1843. This holiday classic by Charles Dickens was published in a print run of 6,000 copies that sold out in one week. By Jan 6,1844, another 2,000 were sold. The reformation of Ebenezer Scrooge ( Bah humbug!) has remained immensely popular.
Dec 17, 1903. Orville and Wilbur Wright, brothers, bicycle-shop operators, inventors and aviation pioneers, after three years of experimentation with kites and gliders, achieved the first documented successful powered and controlled flights of an airplane. The flights, near Kitty Hawk, NC, piloted first by Orville and then by Wilbur Wright, were sustained for less than one minute but represented mans first powered airplane flight and the beginning of a new form of transportation. Orville Wright was born at Dayton, OH, Aug 19, 1871, and died there Jan 30, 1948. Wilbur Wright was born at Millville, IN, Apr 16, 1867, and died at Dayton, OH, May 30, 1912.
he was the first African American to graduate from West Point in the 20th century; he led the first all-black air unit, the 99th Pursuit Squadron (the Tuskegee Airmen), in WWII; he helped plan the integration of the US Air Force in 194849 and he was the Air Forces first black general (1954). He died at Washington, DC, on July 4, 2002.